Various organisms can inhabit the human body. Those that, by their vital activity, harm human health, are called parasites. Parasites in the human body are not necessarily worms, they can also be other living organisms that cause damage to humans. Dangerous parasites can inhabit the entire territory of the earth. So what are the parasites and how do they affect humans?
Types of parasites
There are more than 2000 representatives of the types of parasites in the human body. They are divided according to their type, mode of existence, methods of reproduction. There are also obligate and facultative parasites.
Obligate parasites can only live in the host's body. Obligate intracellular parasites are completely dependent on their host, so they do not seriously harm him.
Optional can live part of their life cycle as free-living, the other part can be held in the host's body. All of them can affect various internal organs and tissues. Some of them exist for a long time and at the same time do not manifest themselves in any way. The appearance of others is accompanied by characteristic symptoms.
Human helminthiases are caused by various worms. At the moment, there are more than 300 types of helminths in humans. Found among worms, both obligate parasites and optional. Also, depending on the form of interaction of the parasite with the host organism, they are divided into two groups: ectoparasites and endoparasites. They belong to different classes and can parasitize in various organs. Worms in humans are one of the most common diseases; geohelminth worms are most often found. The appearance of worms in humans can be provoked, not only with dirty hands. You can get infected from pets, livestock, fish, as well as dirty water. The disease depends on what types of worms have entered the body. To understand what consequences worms can cause, you need to find out what worms are. Knowing what worms can occur and their characteristics, you can protect yourself from infection.
- Roundworms. Most of the worms in this class are parasitic. The main differences of this class are: a dioecious cavity, an existing anus, the presence of a primary body cavity. The most common types of helminths in humans are roundworms, pinworms, trichinella, whipworms. Roundworms are geohelminths, that is, a temporary host is not required for their maturation and reproduction. All their vital activity can occur inside one organism. Some geohelminths in domestic animals can become dangerous to humans, for example, toxocara worms.
- Tapeworms are parasites in the human body that live mainly in the intestines. There are two groups of tapeworms: biohelminths and geohelminths. Most of the worms of this species are biohelminths. For their development, they need to enter the body of an intermediate host, which is livestock, as well as fish and molluscs. The most common tapeworms in this group include bovine tapeworm, broad tapeworm, echinococcus, alveococcus. Tapeworms can grow to a large size, parasitizing the human body. The longest worm - the wide tapeworm can reach 25 meters in length.
- Suckers. One of the most complex organisms that can live in a person. All of these parasites can infect various organs. Any kind of worms of this type cause trematodes. Fluke, liver fluke, and lanceolate fluke are fluke flukes.
- Scratchers or spiny-headed worms are among the smallest tapeworms. These types of parasites are quite rare in the human body. You can get them from sick fish. They parasitize only in the intestines, since they do not have a digestive system. Also in the human body, there are representatives such as giant scrapers.
Protists are the simplest organisms. They belong to a heterogeneous group of living organisms. Protists cannot be classified as animals or mushrooms. Protists are unicellular, colonial, and less commonly multicellular organisms. Some of them can parasitize in the human body. The most dangerous protists are the malarial plasmodium and the dysentery amoeba. Parasites can cause diseases such as malaria, dysentery. Various types cause severe pathologies in humans. And if they are identified, you must consult a doctor.
Various insects, especially those living in tropical countries, cause entomosis. Entomosis causes various pathological changes in human organs. Most often, the eyes, skin, and gastrointestinal tract system are affected. A variety of insects can cause entomosis:
- Mosquitoes, fleas and bugs - infect through unprotected areas of human skin.
- gadflies and flies - infect humans, laying their offspring in the form of eggs or larvae on skin wounds. You can also get infected from some types of flies by swallowing their larvae.
All insects that parasitize the human body have the ability to release toxic substances. Depending on the pathogen, the clinical picture appears. Insects can have an allergic and mechanical effect on humans.
TOP - 7 most common parasites
Parasites living in the human body can cause serious diseases. We offer the top 7 of the most creepy and terrible parasites that can inhabit the human body. From the list you can find out which parasites live in different countries and how they are dangerous.
- Filaria.A thin long worm that is found in tropical and subtropical zones. The parasite is carried by mosquitoes. Filariae cause such a terrible disease as elephantiasis. In countries where the parasite is found, more than one hundred and twenty million inhabitants suffer from elephantiasis. Filariae, parasitizing in the body, clog up the lymphatic vessels. After that, the person begins a strong proliferation of limbs.
- Anisakids.Anisakid larvae have long been considered harmless. But in the middle of the XX century, scientists found out that anisakidosis disease can lead in some cases even to death. You can become infected with parasites from poorly thermally processed seafood, including fish. Anisakids are one of the most terrible parasites in humans. Anisakid larvae entering the stomach provoke the formation of tumors and the development of ulcers.
- One of the most famous parasites is thebovine tapeworm.Having become infected with a worm through dirty hands or raw meat, a person may not know about the disease for a long time. Geohelminths of this species cause severe weight loss. In its size, being inside the owner, it can reach several meters. Sometimes they live in the body for many years, not manifesting themselves at all.
- Schistosoma.With the development of tourism, this type of parasite began to expand its geography. Living in tropical wild forests, the schistosome parasite can enter the body when swimming in water bodies. It can cause serious liver and bladder disease. Especially dangerous for children. In the child's body, the schistosome provokes the development of anemia and is able to stop growth.
- Risht.Inhabits the subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. Dracunculiasis, which causes guinea worm, is a dangerous disease. During the laying of the larvae by the female Rishta, it breaks through the host's skin. The person feels severe pain and itching. There is a great risk of contracting dracunculiasis when drinking dirty water.
- Parasites mainly affect the digestive tract, liver and skin. But there are species that inhabit the brain, such ascysticercus.They can live up to 30 years, causing mental disorders: hallucinations, depression, loss of short-term memory.
- Toxoplasma.One of the most common helminths on earth. Toxoplasmosis is of two types: congenital and acquired. In the first case, infection occurs in the womb. Most often it causes serious pathologies and leads to fetal death. The acquired disease affects the central nervous system and can cause brain cancer. Toxoplasma often causes the development of schizophrenia.