The most unpleasant symptoms, in the form of itching and rashes, can cause subcutaneous parasites in people of all ages. Any invasion brings a lot of health problems due to complications. Species of worms with a long incubation period of several months are especially dangerous.
Types of parasites living under the skin
A subcutaneous worm can enter the human body: with tactile contact with infected people; from blood-sucking insects that carry parasite larvae from animals.
The main feature of such an invasion is the difficulty in recognizing the pathology, since at first the infection can be disguised as other somatic diseases.
Having caught under the thickness of the skin, the parasite over time is able to move to any internal organs and cause their functional disorders. Helminths feed on blood and use it to hatch larvae.
The main signs of the presence of this type of parasites in the body are severe weakness, decreased performance, a constant desire to scratch the skin. When these signs appear, it is advisable to see a specialist: a therapist, dermatologist, allergist, infectious disease specialist. The joint work of doctors and the diagnostic methods they use in their work help to recognize in time the presence of subcutaneous invasion in the body.
Of the diagnostic methods, studies of feces, blood, scalp and epidermis scrapings are mandatory.
The most common infection with subcutaneous helminths occurs in countries with a very warm climate - Central Asia, Africa, South America. Therefore, returning from tourist trips across continents, you need to pay special attention to your health.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to treat yourself with medical and folk remedies - this can aggravate the situation and poison the body. It is necessary not to delay the visit to the doctor, and strictly follow the prescribed medication course.
There are many types of worms that live in the skin. The invasive species listed below are the main ones.
Subcutaneous helminths of this species are represented by filamentous nematodes common in tropical states. This type of parasite can live in the skin for several years in a row, and after its own adaptation, it migrates through the body and looks for another habitat.
Signs of the disease that appear at the beginning are skin rashes in the form of hives and spots, accompanied by itching. Then the temperature is added.
Severe signs of filariasis include eczema, ulcers, and warts, subcutaneous nodules, severe headache, drowsiness, subcutaneous nodules, and increased fever.
Often the parasite can be found on examination by an ophthalmologist, as he loves to live in the mucous membrane of the eye.
Important! In case of an untimely visit to a doctor, filariasis contributes to the appearance of eye diseases and leads to a complete loss of vision.
The parasite of this species lives in warm freshwater rivers and lakes in countries with hot climates. Infection can occur while bathing or drinking raw water.
The parasite simultaneously affects the skin and the urinary system. Toxic substances entering the blood strongly poison the body, and this leads to various disorders of the work of many organs and systems.
Signs of infection with a parasite are: a rash in the form of dermatitis and flushing on the skin, unbearable itching, sweating at night, an enlarged liver, functional disorders of the renal system, a sudden rise in temperature.
Schistosomiasis, which occurs with damage to the genitourinary system, clogs the outgoing and incoming ducts of the bladder.
Important! In order not to become infected with this helminth, you cannot swim in stagnant water bodies of the tropics and drink raw water from unfamiliar natural sources.
The disease is caused by rishta - round worms-parasites, reaching a length of 80 cm. Infection with worms, which are home to countries with a tropical climate and Central Asia, can be due to the use of raw water or contact with cats and dogs that are carriers of the worm.
The incubation period from the moment of infection with the eggs of the parasite and migration through the body is 1. 5 months. Parasites develop and grow throughout the year.
Dracunculiasis mainly affects the skin of the lower extremities. The parasite is able to twist and unfold, forming a long bulge on the skin, and then a bubble of several centimeters. As soon as the bubble comes into contact with water, it immediately bursts, releasing the larvae, which cause symptoms of severe internal itching.
Important! If therapy and control of this type of parasite is not carried out, then the person begins to develop sepsis, gangrenous inflammation or joint immobility.
The type of mites up to 0. 4 mm is the culprit for the development of scabies. Parasites can be infected by contact with the body of the sick person or his things, if the person has a severely reduced immunity. Infection occurs when hygiene rules are not followed.
Small parasites that get on the skin are introduced first into the epidermis, then into the deep layer, and are able to infect the entire body with toxins. Parasites gnaw through the passages in which they lay eggs.
Clinical symptoms of pathology appear in the form of a red rash, small blisters and peeling of the skin on: hands, thighs, elbows, knees, and hair. If you treat the places of rashes with an iodine solution, then you can see the ticks.
Due to the active development and reproduction of the parasite, a person is tormented by intolerable itching, which intensifies at night, the desire to scratch the skin, as well as after contact with water.
Complications of scabies include the development of furunculosis, eczema, dermatitis and vesicular lesions of the skin.
Important! In order not to get scabies, you need to adhere to the rules of hygiene, and avoid contact with people infected with scabies.
This disease, caused by a microscopic mite, is seasonal in nature, and more often appears in the fall. The formation of excess fat on the skin in summer and the negative effects of ultraviolet rays undermine local immunity, contributing to the spread of this species of mite.
Parasites can be infected through tactile contact with a sick person, as well as the use of his personal belongings and care items.
The pathology, according to clinical signs, is very similar to acne, which captures more and more territories. Pink and red papules abundantly dot the face and back, leaving rough scars after healing. A person may develop inflammation of the eyelids, vasodilation, and peeling eyebrows.
Important! Demodectic mange develops over the years. For an accurate diagnosis of a person, a scraping is taken from the skin. Healing therapy can take up to 3 months.
Invasion is considered a dangerous parasitic disease, which is caused by dirofilaria worms, reaching 30 cm in adulthood. This type of parasite affects the subcutaneous areas, as well as eye tissue, and can cause complete loss of vision.
The incubation period for the development of dirofilariasis is several years. A person can become infected by the bite of mosquitoes, which carry parasite eggs from sick dogs and cats.
A seal grows in the skin, accompanied by soreness, unbearable itching and hyperemia. The seal can grow to the size of an average egg, in which the coiled helminth lives.
Basically, the parasite lives in the skin, but sometimes they can crawl into the eye, which leads to visual impairment and loss of vision.
In order not to become infected with this type of worms, you need to fight mosquitoes by all possible methods and use repellents in everyday life.
How to get rid of subcutaneous parasites?
The fight against worms developing under the skin is based on the use of superficial and drug methods, as well as surgical operations.
Antiparasitic therapy for each type of helminth can be presented in the form of a table:
|Type of helminthiasis||Applied methods|
|Filariasis||Anthelmintic drug for the treatment of filariasis. In severe cases, surgery.|
|Schistosomiasis||Antimony and surgical techniques are used. At the same time, restoration of the affected organs is necessary.|
|Dracunculiasis||Surgical neat worm removal.|
|Scabies||Local remedies: salicylate ointments and sulfuric soap; water-soap suspension; hydrochloric acid solution for 1 week. Immunological preparations. Thorough disinfection of the patient's clothing and household items. Sometimes antibiotics are used.|
|Demodecosis||External agents are used: camphor alcohol, as well as thorough cosmetic care (cleaning, masks, peels), the use of hyaluronic acid, alginates. Immunostimulants, vitamin complexes, anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Be sure to treat concomitant pathologies of disorders of the digestive tract and metabolism. A healthy diet and physical therapy are essential.|
|Dirofilariasis||Surgical treatment. The eyeball may need to be removed.|
In most cases, you can get rid of subcutaneous types of helminths thanks to surgery and an intensive course of chemotherapy.
Methods of superficial action are used to combat helminths that live in the epidermis (for example, scabies and demodicosis).
External antiparasitic medicines are rubbed into the skin with scabies. These medicines are rubbed all over the body at night. The course lasts 2 weeks. Persons who have been in contact with an infected person are advised to carry out the same procedures.
With demodicosis, suspensions, ointments, solutions, gels, scrubs, cryotherapy are used, which reduce the secretion of sebum, deprive food and reduce the negative effects of the parasite.
With other types of helminths, external manifestations are removed with the help of ointments with steroids and antibiotics.
All ointments specially selected by doctors relieve inflammation, deprive parasites of motor activity and kill them.
Local procedures must be applied in moderation, avoiding damage to the skin, so as not to disturb the acid-base balance, and to exclude the attachment of pathogenic microbes to the pathology.
Important! When starting a course of therapy at a hot temperature, it is necessary to wash the laundry and warm up the pillows in the bright sun.
For each type of helminth, its own medicine is applied, which is prescribed by a doctor, in accordance with the stage of the disease.
Some drugs completely kill parasites, others immobilize them and prevent reproduction.
When the helminth dies, a person may experience signs of intoxication - headache, nausea, vomiting, so the drugs are carefully selected. The intake of enterosorbents is allowed.
The main diseases are necessarily treated with pathologies from other organs. Symptomatic therapy is used.
Intervention by surgeons is necessary to remove the parasite through the incision.
The operation takes place as usual under local anesthesia. A surgeon needs to be a virtuoso and a master of his craft, so that when removing a helminth, pull it out completely, without dividing it into parts.
Rehabilitation methods after surgery include therapy with antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as antiparasitic drugs.
Prevention of infection with helminthiasis
With caution, it is quite possible to prevent subcutaneous worms from entering the body.
- undergo annual medical examinations;
- consult a doctor for various kinds of ailments;
- wash your hands thoroughly after going to public places and tactile contact with strangers and stray animals;
- boil raw water, and do not drink it from natural sources;
- do not swim in stagnant bodies of water, especially in hot countries;
- to fight blood-sucking insects using repellents and protective devices;
- carry out routine and general cleaning of the house, and maintain order.
When traveling to epidemically dangerous states, you need to observe safety measures, and be sure to find out all the information on how to protect yourself on the trip.
It is necessary to improve immunity by leading a healthy lifestyle, eating well, hardening and taking vitamin complexes several times a year.
Fighting subcutaneous parasites takes patience and effort. If all the doctor's prescriptions are followed, the person will fully recover.