Prevention of helminthsconsists in observing strict hygiene rules. Many of us do not even realize that we are infected with many parasites. Fatigue, apathy, headache, poor digestion are most often attributed to overwork or food quality. And few people think that these symptoms may indicate parasite infestation.
The worst thing is that helminthiases are hidden, slowly undermining our health. The risk group includes children, whose bodies are often defenseless against parasites. Therefore, it is so important to prevent worms in a natural way, with the help of immunity.
Helminths and harm to the body
Worm infestation in humans can be caused by more than 400 species of parasitic worms. Infection often occurs through contaminated food and water, less often helminths penetrate the body through the skin.
Depending on the routes of infection, parasites are divided into 3 groups:
- biohelminths- through food (echinococcus, bovine and pork tapeworm);
- geohelminths- with hands contaminated with feces, household items, sometimes water (whipworm, hookworm, roundworm);
- contact worms- with personal contact with an infected person, less often with self-infection (pinworms, dwarf tapeworm).
According to the structure of the body, parasites are divided into the following types:
- round (nematodes);
- tape (cestodes);
- flukes (have powerful suckers and a flat body).
The risk group includes children who attend preschool institutions, agricultural workers, patients with immunodeficiencies, the elderly and elderly people. Pets can be a risk of infection too.
In adults, helminthiases often proceed latently (latently), have a protracted course and manifest themselves with various clinical signs that are disguised as a different pathology. Children are characterized by an acute course with vivid symptoms, which is associated with the peculiarities of the immune system.
Helminths use the human body as a food source, habitat and reproduction. Instead, releasing the products of their vital activity, worms cause systemic toxic damage to human organs and systems.
For example, hookworm larvae secrete an anticoagulant to maintain blood flow. A. duodenale alone has been estimated to cause blood loss of 0. 2 ml per day. For the loss of 5 ml of blood, the presence of 25 pieces of helminths in the body is enough. But usually there are much more of them. As a result, the infected person has severe anemia.
According to numerous studies, helminthic invasions contribute to the more frequent development of somatic diseases, exacerbation of chronic pathologies, having a negative effect on the host's body, including its immune system.
A feature of most helminthiases is a chronic course associated with the prolonged presence of the pathogen in the body and repeated repeated infections. Helminthiasis in children is often accompanied by a variety of nonspecific symptoms: weakness, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, dyspepsia, growth retardation and weight gain, and decreased immunity.
Diseases caused by helminths reduce the ability to work and worsen the quality of life.
The role of immunity against helminths
The immune system is on guard for our health. It protects the body from the introduction of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Unfortunately, immunity copes with the latter a little worse. This is especially true for children. The child's defenses are not sufficiently developed, and helminthic invasions further undermine the body's resistance to infections. Therefore, the prevention of helminths for children is so important.
Antiparasitic immunity is similar to antibacterial immunity. Both cellular and humoral links are involved in protection from helminths. The first barrier for intruders is the skin and mucous membranes. More often, worms enter the body through the digestive tract. The mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines contains immune cells that trigger a cascade of reactions to reject the parasite and remove it from the body.
The problem is that helminths have their own defense mechanisms, which often allow them to easily pass the first barrier.
Immunity against helminths is divided into primary and secondary. Since the primary person is born, he is a genetically determined defense factor. Secondary is formed during life after infection and the production of specific antibodies against a particular type of parasite.
The recently discovered TSLP (Thymus Stromal Lymphopoietin) aroused great interest among scientists. Due to its unique properties, the cytokine plays an important role in protecting the body from worms. Depending on the nature of the infection, TSLP can enhance or suppress the defense reactions regulated by two types of T-lymphocytes.
The likelihood of infection largely depends on the innate immunity and the health of the immune system as a whole, the effectiveness of which is always individual, and depends on the type of worm.
The good functioning of the immune system depends on our nutrition, if the body lacks the necessary vitamins and minerals to build immune cells, then the response to infections will be weak and the fight will end in defeat.
Immunity needs biologically active substances that come to us with food. In case of chronic stress or illness, it is imperative to support the immune system with vitamins and microelements, since the body uses all nutrients to strengthen the nervous system, as well as herbs. And only in extreme cases, resort to drug treatment.
How does immunity against worms work?
Primary immunity against helminths can work in several ways:
- The parasite adapts to the internal environment of the host organism, grows well, develops, multiplies. The immune response is minimal. In such cases, helminthiases are long-term, sometimes difficult. An example is dwarf tapeworm invasion.
- A moderate immune response appears to the introduction of the helminth. This limits the fertility of the worm. Example, roundworm.
- The defense reaction is well expressed, which blocks the full development of the parasite. The worm does not reach sexual maturity, but it can be harmful to health. The disease is short-term or takes a latent (latent) course.
- Effective primary immunity stops the introduction of parasites at the stage of the skin and mucous membranes. As a result, helminths do not penetrate the internal organs and do not harm health.
Secondary immunity helps the body respond faster and more effectively to repeated helminthic invasion. This blocks the development of worms at the first stage of infection and reduces toxic effects. The protective reaction is based on the presence in the blood of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to this type of helminth.
The main links of the immune defense against parasitic invasion:
- the reaction of tissues of internal organs, which leads to isolation (formation of a capsule) and destruction of worms;
- production of class A and E immunoglobulins;
- changes in hormonal activity, especially on the part of estrogens, which are found in both the female and male body;
- hereditary factor (antiparasitic primary immunity).
An indicator of infection is a high content of eosinophils in the blood, which indicates an allergic reaction. The second important point is a sharp increase in the concentration of immunoglobulin E, provided there is no food intolerance.
Important rules of prevention
Immunity copes with the introduction of parasites in different ways, not always effectively enough. Our task is to help the body prevent the threat of alien invasion. Preventive measures must be followed at all times and without exception.
Parents should teach their child from an early age the rules of personal hygiene to minimize the risk of infection.
Preventive measures are simple and accessible to everyone, while allowing you to completely (or almost completely) exclude the danger of helminthic invasion. Still, for risk groups, doctors recommend to additionally carry out prophylaxis with drugs, even if all the necessary measures are taken. Medicines are also taken as directed by a doctor if an infection is suspected or worms are detected during diagnosis.
Rules for the prevention of helminthiasis:
- Buy meat and fish products at designated locations. Sellers must have a quality certificate and a health certificate.
- Cook food sufficiently. Follow the rules of salting, canning and pickling.
- Drink boiled tap water or filtered water.
- Wash vegetables and fruits under running water before use. Greens can first be rinsed in soapy water and then rinsed in clean water. Strawberries are immersed in a 1% soda solution. After the berries are thoroughly washed with running water. Vegetables heavily contaminated with fertilizers are recommended to first soak in a weak iodine solution (no more than 0. 3%).
- Follow the rules of personal hygiene. Wash your hands with soap and water after using the toilet, outdoors, working in your garden plot, after each contact with animals, including pets.
- Clean the area regularly with disinfectants, especially the bathrooms and kitchen.
- Deworm pets according to a veterinarian's schedule (usually 1-2 times a year).
- In case of enterobiasis, pay special attention to the hygiene of hands and nails, wash the child at night and in the morning, each time change underwear and bed linen, which are pre-ironed with an iron. This prevents repeated self-infection.
- It is important to live a healthy lifestyle to strengthen and maintain your immune system. Rational nutrition, regular physical activity, correct response to stress, and rejection of bad habits will reduce the risk of parasite infection.
- Chemoprophylaxis 1-2 times a year according to the scheme prescribed by the doctor.
Medicines for worms are taken in pill form.This is chemoprophylaxis aimed at destroying parasites that may have entered the body, but did not have time to cause a reaction from the internal organs.
They have an antihelminthic effectpumpkin seeds.Before eating, the seeds can be crushed and mixed with a little honey. The daily dosage for adults is 300 grams, for children, depending on age. Up to 4 years old - 80 grams, up to 7 years old - 100 grams, up to 10 years old - 150 grams, up to 15 years old - 200 grams. After 3 hours, a laxative is taken.
Prevention of helminthiasis consists in strengthening the immune system, observing the rules of personal hygiene and culinary processing of products. By adhering to simple rules, we can protect ourselves from infection with worms. Annual chemoprophylaxis helps our immunity to cope with a foreign attack.
Talk to your doctor before taking an antihelminthic medication. The specialist will select the remedy suitable for you and give recommendations on the treatment regimen. An uncontrolled reception can not only be useless, but also harm your health. Don't forget this.
An excellent alternative to pills is herbs from worms.